Public Sector Marketing

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The meaning of marketing is construed in two different but complementary ways. In the first and MOST Widespread meaning, [1] the emphasis is on the managerial dimension, with special focus being white dedicated to the tasks That organization must Fulfill year in order to Ensure the long-term success with target groups. The second and more comprehensive meaning [2] is concerned with the function of marketing. It focuses on the notions of exchange and relationship between these two groups of individuals and their individual needs. Analogously, public sector Marketing and communication solutions for the exchange and relationship between organizations and individuals, groups of individuals, organizations or communities in connection with the demand for and the performance of public-oriented tasks and services.

Reasons for the growing use of marketing in the public sector

Applying marketing to the public sector is the result of developments in both marketing and public management.

Development of the marketing concept

The broadening of the concept of marketing enables non-commercial aspects of inter alia, with the reinforcement of the relational aspect of the exchange and the powerful development of marketing tools and techniques (systems for obtaining and handling information, cost- analysis systems, communication and distribution tools, etc.). These tools and concepts may be applied to the public sector either partially or occasionally.

Development of public administration models

Over the last 20 years, the concept of public administration and its management has changed considerably. While developing its economic activities and services for citizens, the State has promoted the use of tools (notably marketing tools) from the private sector. At the same time, the growth of many administrative units (creation of agencies) has given them the chance to take a different approach from the traditional public administration model. Hybrid management models, developed by these agencies, reflect the public nature of their organization while developing a business relationship.

Growing uncertainty affecting public bodies

SENSIBILITY, INCREASED BY THEIR BODIES AND INDEPENDENT POLICIES, INC. . By using traditional marketing tools (eg, improving the supply of goods and services, improving the value of the exchange, etc.) .

Need to strengthen social ties

The public administration has to assume new roles, especially those involving social ties. Society needs to maintain – if not (re) create – social links between its members given the destructuring of social ties, and their ‘virtualisation’ through social networks such as Facebook or Twitter . Public management, participation, seeking to remain close and accessible to persons who are socially and physically isolated, etc. In such situations, and beyond all forms of exchange, relational elements are very important, and there are useful lessons to be learned here from relational marketing.

Application of Public Sector Marketing

For two main reasons it is not possible to determine whether marketing can really be applied to the public sector or not. The first reason concerns the nature of the public sector. It is not a homogenous entity, as it includes both services of a commercial nature (hospitals, tourism, etc.) and activities involving constraints (prison, taxation, etc.). So some elements of the public sector, with the application of marketing tools for real postal services. The second reasonthe services and obligations delivered by the public sector. In some cases, the same public body and the same time require citizens to respect norms or stipulations. The police is a good example. The police may use force to inspect vehicles or stop drivers, arresting the latter if they break the law; yet who may also charge an event-organizer for their services in ensuring an event’s safety.

So generalizing marketing throughout the public sector, with no deeper analysis of the notions of exchange and relationship, is not easy.

In order to delimit situations in which marketing principles and approaches can not be avoided, it is worth crossing types of exchange (subject to constraint) , partially free or free) of the relationships that can emerge between the parties.

Absence of exchange Exchange subject to constraint // Free exchange
Relationship subject to constraint no marketing Selective use of marketing tools
Partially free relationship // Free relationship Elements of relationship marketing Potential application of the conceptual approach

1st case: absence of exchange / relationship subject to constraint

The first case, which frequently occurs in the public sector, corresponds to the type of situation in which the relationship is subject to constraint and no exchange occurs. A police officer who makes an arrest, a judge who issues a summons, etc., are all significant, concrete situations in which marketing, as a discipline, is absent from public sector thinking. freedom in the relationship. Furthermore, these situations are clearly codified in democratic systems and the rules governing constraint (eg, codes of procedure, administrative directives, etc.) are stringent. This is not to imply that administrations and public officials are exempt from complying with a number of such as showing respect for individuals (eg, listening to people, showing a minimum of empathy, as much as possible, certain characteristics of an individual who presents a disability or not understanding the language, etc.), or employing communication skills (eg, clearly explaining the situation and underlying expectations, justifying decisions in a way that is easily understandable, informing individuals of their rights, etc.). Even though some of these elements may also be discerned in the principles of relationship marketing, they do not provide a sufficient basis for the discussion of these services. certain characteristics of an individual who presents a disability or does not understand the language, etc.), or employing communication skills (eg, clearly explaining the situation and underlying expectations; , etc.). Even though some of these elements may also be discerned in the principles of relationship marketing, they do not provide a sufficient basis for the discussion of these services. certain characteristics of an individual who presents a disability or does not understand the language, etc.), or employing communication skills (eg, clearly explaining the situation and underlying expectations; , etc.). Even though some of these elements may also be discerned in the principles of relationship marketing, they do not provide a sufficient basis for the discussion of these services.

2nd box: absence of exchange or partial free to relationship

In situations in which exchange is absent and the relationship is devoid of constraint (ie, is at least partly free), one can resort to an approach that is more systematically involved. It is a fact that many public organizations do not consist in the provisioning of services for citizens but rather in the development, implementation and monitoring of policies. These may be, but they may be, but they may involve individuals or groups of individuals. When, for example, a public policy decision-making process for a public transport organization briefing, or foster dialogue with citizens (eg, Web forum, suggestion box, etc.). Depending on the activity and the institutional context, these organizations may apply the principles of relationship marketing to a lasting relationship of trust.

3rd case: possible exchange / relationship subject to constraint

A different kind of situation occurs where the relationship is subject to constraint but where a certain degree of exchange exists. This is the case, for example, of mandatory periodic inspections that are, at the same time, the occasion of a concrete service transaction (ie, . The positioning of the service, the positioning of needs, the expectations or the positioning of the service offering (due to little or no competitive environment, the absence of any possible differentiation in terms of service fee, etc.). Nevertheless, organizations can apply to a certain number of marketing tools (eg. One such way is to use the communication tools to improve the transaction between the organization and the recipient (eg, the option of choosing one’s time for inspection on the Internet, prepayment via various modern mechanisms, etc.). Another way is to establish ways of systematically improving the transaction and the relationship with service users (eg, surveys on user satisfaction or service quality). This situation also applies to the case of compulsory education, tax collection, etc. garage owners as opposed to individual citizens). One such way is to use the communication tools to improve the transaction between the organization and the recipient (eg, the option of choosing one’s time for inspection on the Internet, prepayment via various modern mechanisms, etc.). Another way is to establish ways of systematically improving the transaction and the relationship with service users (eg, surveys on user satisfaction or service quality). This situation also applies to the case of compulsory education, tax collection, etc. garage owners as opposed to individual citizens). One such way is to use the communication tools to improve the transaction between the organization and the recipient (eg, the option of choosing one’s time for inspection on the Internet, prepayment via various modern mechanisms, etc.). Another way is to establish ways of systematically improving the transaction and the relationship with service users (eg, surveys on user satisfaction or service quality). This situation also applies to the case of compulsory education, tax collection, etc. prepayment via various modern mechanisms, etc.). Another way is to establish ways of systematically improving the transaction and the relationship with service users (eg, surveys on user satisfaction or service quality). This situation also applies to the case of compulsory education, tax collection, etc. prepayment via various modern mechanisms, etc.). Another way is to establish ways of systematically improving the transaction and the relationship with service users (eg, surveys on user satisfaction or service quality). This situation also applies to the case of compulsory education, tax collection, etc.

4th case: possible exchange / partially free to free relationship

Whenever the relationship is at least partially free and a degree of exchange occurs. The simplest case involves the situation in which both the exchange and the relationship are totally free. Then, the public organization can, subject to existing laws and regulations, act like a private business to a very large extent. Such criteria are fully satisfied in the field of continuing education programs offered by public universities, which enjoy considerable latitude in terms of accepting or refusing program participants. In the public sector, however, the freedom characterizing the relationship is often limited – where users are concerned – to accepting or refusing the corresponding service. That being said, the terms and conditions of use and the terms of the agreement are subject to restrictions. As regards the organization, the ability and interest in the use of marketing tools stems directly from the possibility of incorporating differentiation into the service of the customer.

Notes and references

  1. Jump up^ Meffert, H., Burmann, C. and Kirchgeorg M. (2008). Marketing. Grundlagen marktorientierter Unternehmensfuhrung, Wiesbaden (Germany):Gabler Verlag.
  2. Jump up^ Kotler, P., B. Dubois and D. Manceau (2004). Marketing Management, Paris: Pearson Education.

See also

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External links

  • Public sector Marketing
  • ENAP: Public administration dictionary