Brand awareness

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Brand awareness refers to the extent to which we are able to recall or recognize a brand . [1] Brand awareness is a key factor in consumer behavior , advertising management , brand managementand strategy development. The consumer’s ability to recognize or recall is central to purchasing decision-making. Purchasing can not proceed unless a consumer is aware of a product category and a brand within that category. Awareness does not necessarily mean that the consumer must be able to recall a specific brand name, but he or she must be able to recall sufficient distinguishing features. For instance, if a consumer is looking for a friend or a friend, you may be interested in knowing what you are going to buy.

Different types of brand awareness have been identified, namely brand recall and brand recognition . Key researchers argue that these different types of impacts are important in this process. Brand awareness is related to concepts étroitement Such As the evoked set and consideration set qui describe specific aspects of the consumer’s purchase decision. Consumers are believed to be between three and seven brands in their consideration across a broad range of product categories. [2] Consumers will normally purchase one of the three brands in their consideration set.

Brand awareness is a key indicator of a brand’s competitive market performance. The importance of brand awareness in consumer purchasing decisions, marketers have developed a number of metrics. These metrics are collectively known as A wareness, A attitudes and U wise (AAU) metrics.

To ensure a product or brand of market success, the product must be managed across the entire product life cycle – from product launch to market decline. Many marketers regularly monitor brand awareness levels, and if they fall below a threshold threshold, the advertising and promotional effort is intensified.

Importance of brand awareness

Brand awareness is related to the functions of consumers and consumers can be measured under the various conditions. [3] Brand awareness is also central to understanding the consumer purchase decision process. Strong brand awareness can be a predictor of brand success. [4] It is an important measure of brand equity or brand equity and is also involved in customer satisfaction, brand loyalty and the customer’s brand relationships. [5]

Brand awareness is a key indicator of a brand’s market performance. Every year advertisers invest substantial amounts of money attempting to improve the brand’s overall awareness levels. Many marketers regularly monitor brand awareness levels, and if they fall below a threshold threshold, the advertising and promotional effort is intensified. Setting brand awareness goals is a key decision in marketing planning and strategy development.

Brand awareness is one of major brand assets that adds value to the product, service or company. [6] Investments in building brand awareness can lead to sustainable competitive advantages, thus, leading to long-term value. [6]

Interbrand’s Top Ten Global Brands, ( by brand value ) 2016 [7]
Rank Logo Brand Value ($ m)
1 Apple 178.119
2 Google 133.252
3 Coca Cola 73.102
4 Microsoft 72.795
5 Toyota 53.580
6 IBM 52,850
7 Samsung 51.808
8 Amazon 50.338
9 Mercedes-Benz 43,400
10 GE 43.130

Types of brand awareness

Marketers typically identify two distinct types of brand awareness; namely brand recall (also known as unaided recall or spontaneous recall ) and brand recognition (also known as aided brand recall ). [8] These types of awareness are important for marketing and advertising.

Brand recall

Brand recall is Also Known As unaided recall or spontaneous recall and Refers to the Ability of the Consumers Correctly to elicit a brand name from memory When Prompted by a product category. [3] Brand recall indicates a brand strong link between a category and a brand while brand recognition indicates a weaker link. When prompted by a product category, most consumers can only recall a relatively small set of brands, typically around 3-5 brand names. In consumer tests, a few consumers can recall more than seven names, and most consumers can only recall one or two brand names. [9]

Research suggests that the number of brands may be affected by both individual and product factors; brand awareness, situational awareness, use factors and education level. [10] For instance, consumers who are involved with a category, such as heavy users or product enthusiasts, may be able to recall a smaller number of participants.

Brand recognition

Brand recognition is also known as aided recall and refers to the ability of consumers to correctly differentiate the brand when they come into contact with it. This does not necessarily require that the consumers identify the brand name. Instead, it means that consumers can recognize the brand when presented with the point-of-sale or after viewing its visual packaging. [11] In contrast to brand recall, where few consumers are able to recognize a brand name within the scope of the product, when prompted by a brand name.

Top-of-Mind Awareness

Consumers will normally purchase one of the three brands in their consideration set. This is known as top-of-mind awareness . [12] Therefore, one of the goals for the most marketing communications is to increase the probability that consumers will include the brand in their consideration sets.

By definition, top-of-mind awareness is “the first brand that comes to mind when a customer is asked an unprompted question about a category.” [13] When discussing top-of-mind awareness among larger groups of consumers, it is more often defined as “most remembered” or “most recalled” brand name (s). [14]

A brand that enjoys top-of-mind awareness, which is considered to be a genuine purchase option, provided that the consumer is favorably disposed to the brand name. [15] Top-of-mind awareness is a question of whether or not to make a purchase or to buy a product. [16]

Marketing implications of brand awareness

Clearly brand awareness is étroitement related to the concepts of the evoked set (defined as the set of brands That a consumer can elicit from memory When contemplating a purchase) and the consideration set (defined as the “small set of brands qui a burn close country attention to when making a purchase decision “). [17] One of the advertising’s central roles is to create both brand awareness and brand image, in order to increase the likelihood that a consumer is considered in the consumer’s favor or consideration. [18]

Consumers do not learn about products and brands from advertising alone. When making purchase decisions, consumers obtain information about their decisions. After searching for information about a category, Consumers May Become aware of a larger number of brands are qui Collectively Known As the awareness set . [19] Thus, the awareness set is likely to change its consumers. A review of empirical studies in this area suggests that the consideration is more likely than the evoked set. [20] Awareness alone is not enough to trigger a purchase, it is also necessary to purchase a reasonable purchase option.

The process of moving consumers is a well-known concept [21] While advertising is an excellent tool for creating awareness and branding, it usually requires support from other elements in the marketing program. [22] Other promotional activities, such as telemarketing, are vastly superior to advertising in terms of generating sales. Accordingly, the advertising message may be used as an integral part of an integrated communications strategy. [23] Many different techniques can be used, special offers, attractive trade-in terms or guarantees.

Percy and Rossiter argues that it is important for the purchase decision and advertising strategy

Percy and Rossiter (1992) argues that the two types of awareness, namely brand recall and brand recognition, operate in different ways in the purchase decision. FMCG, few shoppers carry shopping lists. For them, the presentation of brands at the point-of-sale acts as a visual reminder and triggers category need. In this case, brand recognition is the dominant mode of awareness. For other purchases, where the brand is not present, Many services, such as home help, gardening services, pizza delivery fall into this category. In this case, the category requires precedes brand awareness. Such purchases are predominant, and the consumer is more likely to select one of the brands elicited from memory. [24]When brand is dominant, it is not necessary for consumers to like the advertisement, but they must like the brand. In contrast, consumers should like the ad when [25]

The distinction between branding and branding has important implications for advertising strategy. When the communications objective is dependent on brand recognition , the creative execution must show the brand packaging or a recognizable brand name. HOWEVER, When the objective communications Rely on brand recall , the creative execution shoulds encourages strong associations entre les category and the brand. [26] Advertisers also use jingles, mnemonics and other devices to encourage brand recall.

Brand dominance occurs when, during brand recall tests, most consumers [27] Brand dominance is defined as an individual’s selection of certain brand names. [27] While dominance might be desirable, overall dominance can be a double-edged sword.

When a brand name becomes so well-known that the brand becomes synonymous with the category, the brand is said to have ‘gone generic’

A brand name that is usually called a household name [28] and may be an indicator of brand success. Occasionally a brand can become so successful that the brand becomes synonymous with the category. For example, British people often talk about “Hoovering the house” when they actually mean “vacuuming the house.” (Hoover is a brand name). When this happens, the brand name is said to have “gone generic .” [29]Examples of brands becoming generic abound; Kleenex, Cellotape, Nescafe, Aspirin and Panadol. When they are branded, they can present a marketing problem because they have a brand name, they can be supplied with a competing brand. For example, if a person enters a bar and requests “a rum and Coke,” the bartender may interpret that to mean a “rum and cola-flavored beverage,” paving the way for the outlet to supply a cheaper alternative mixer. In such a scenario, Coca-Cola Ltd, who is investing in a building for a more than a century, is the ultimate loser because it does not get the sale.

Measuring brand awareness

Just as different types of brand awareness can be identified, there are a variety of methods for measuring awareness. Typically, use of surveys, surveys, surveys, and surveys.

Two types of recall are used to measure brand awareness: [30]

  • Unaided recall tests : where the respondent is presented with a product category and asked for nominate as many brands as possible. Thus, the unaided recall test provides the answer with no clues or cues. Unaided recall tests are used to test for brand recall.
  • Aided recall test : where the answer is prompted by In some aided recall tests, the respondent may also be asked to know what they know about the brand to describe package, color, logo or other distinctive features. Aided recall tests are used to test for brand recognition.
  • Other brand-effects tests : In addition, to recall tests, brand research often employs a battery of tests, such as branding, brand attitude, brand image, brand dominance, brand value, brand salience and other measures of brand health. Although these tests do not include measure brand awareness

To measure brand salience, for example, on the marketplace. Consumers are shown photographs of the shelf display and ask consumers to the brands noticed. The speed at which consumers nominate a brand is an indicator of brand’s visual salience. This type of research can provide valuable insights into the effectiveness of packaging design and brand logos. [31]

A number of commercial research firms (eg Interbrand, [32] Millward-Brown, [33] Nielsen (Asia) [34]The results of this study are published in the press, online press and online magazine. It is worth noting that these commercially compiled lists are not popular, but use clearly articulated methodologies to compile lists based on consumer responses. However, these listings use a variety of metrics, so they are not directly comparable and can not be assumed that they measure brand awareness. As with the interpretation of all research, it is important for the reader to become familiar with the methodologies used in order to ascertain what exactly is being measured and how has data been collected.

Obviously, most marketers aim at building high levels of brand awareness within the market segments, giving rise to a growing interest in the right metrics to measure brand effects. AAU metrics ( A wareness, A ttitudes and U wise). [35]

Brand awareness and the hierarchy of effects

Brand awareness is a standard feature of a group of known forms of hierarchy of effects models. Hierarchical models are linear sequential models built on an assumption that consumers move through a series of cognitive and affective stages, starting with brand awareness (or category awareness) and culminating in the purchase decision. [36] In these models, advertising and marketing communications operates as an external stimulus and the purchase decision is a consumer response.

A number of hierarchical models can be found in the literature including DAGMAR and AIDA. [37] In a survey of more than 250 papers, Vakratsas and Ambler (1999) found little empirical support for any of the hierarchies of effects. [38]In spite of that, some authors have argued that hierarchical models continue to dominate theory, especially in the area of ​​marketing communications and advertising. [39]

The hierarchy of effects developed by Lavidge in the 1960s is one of the original hierarchical models. It proposes that customers progress through a sequence of six stages from the point of view of a product. [40]

Stage 1 : Awareness – The consumer becomes aware of a category, product or brand (usually through advertising)

Stage 2 : Knowledge – The consumer learns about the brand (eg sizes, colors, prices, availability etc)

Stage 3 : Liking – The consumer develops a favourable / unfavorable disposition towards the brand

Stage 4 : Preference – The consumer begins to miss one brand Above other comparable brands

Stage 5 : Conviction – The consumer demonstrates a desire to purchase (via inspection, sampling, trial)

Stage 6 : Purchase – The consumer acquires the product

However, Cognition (C) – Affect (A) – Behavior (B) and for this reason, they are sometimes known as CAB models. [41] Some of the more recent adaptations are designed to accommodate the consumer’s digital media habits and opportunities for social influence.

Selected alternative hierarchical models follow:

Basic AIDA model : Awareness → Interest → Desire → Action [42] [43]
Modified AIDA model : Awareness → Interest → Conviction → Desire → Action [44]
AIDAS Model: Attention → Interest → Desire → Action → Satisfaction [45]
AISDALSLove model : Awareness → Interest → Search → Desire → Action → Like / dislike → Share → Love / Hate [46]
Lavidge et al. Hierarchy of Effects : Awareness → Knowledge → Liking → Preference → Conviction → Purchase [40]
DAGMAR Model: Awareness → Comprehension → Attitude / Conviction → Action [47]
Rossiter and Percy’s communications effects : Category Need → → Brand Awareness Brand Preference (A b ) → → Purchase Intent Purchase Facilitation [48]

Marketing Implications of hierarchical models

It should be obvious that the brand awareness is just one of six stages that outline the typical consumer’s progress towards a purchase decision. While awareness is a necessary precondition for a purchase. Consumers may be aware of a brand, but for different reasons, may not know it or may fail to develop a preference for that brand. Hence, brand awareness is an indicator of sales performance, but does not account for all sales performance. [49] For these reasons, marketers use a variety of metrics, including cognitive, affective and behavioral variables, to monitor a brand’s market performance.

As consumers move through the hierarchy of effects , they rely on different sources of information to learn about brands. While main media advertising is useful for creating awareness, its ability to convey long or complex messages is limited. Expert opinion, word of mouth referrals and brand / corporate websites. As consumers move closer to the actual purchase, they begin to rely on the most important sources of information. [50] For example, the opinion of an influential blogger might be enough to shore up preference / conviction while a salesperson might need to close the actual purchase.

The Purchase Funnel indicates that awareness is a necessary precondition for purchase

All hierarchical models indicate brand awareness is a necessary precondition to brand attitude or branding, which serves to underscore the importance of creating high levels of awareness in a product or brand life cycle. Hierarchical models provide marketers and advertisers with basic insights on the nature of the target audience, the optimal message and media strategy indicated at different junctures throughout a product’s life cycle. For new products, the main advertising objective should be created with a broad cross-section of the market potential. When the desired levels of awareness have been attained, the advertising effort should shift to stimulating interest, desire or conviction. The number of potential purchasers decreases as the product moves through the natural sales cycle in an effect likened to a funnel . [51] The marketer can employ more narrowly targeted promotions such as personal selling, direct mail and email directed at those individuals or sub-segments. .

Creating and maintaining brand awareness

Brand advertising can increase the probability that a consumer will be included. Brand-related advertising expenditure has a positive affect on brand awareness levels. Virtually anything that exposes consumers to a brand increases brand awareness. ” [52] Increasing Exposure to Consumer Advertising Increasing Exposure to Consumers and Increasing Exposure to Consumers.” [52] attitude towards the brand. [53]

Brand marketers must consider how to manage awareness throughout the product’s entire life-cycle

To increase the probability of a product’s acceptance by the market, it is important to create high levels of brand awareness as a product of life. To achieve top-of-mind awareness, marketers have traditionally, relied on intensive advertising campaigns, especially at the time of a product launch. [54] To be successful, an intensive campaign uses both broad reach and high frequency(exposes people multiple times to the message). Advertising, especially main media advertising, was seen as the most cost effective means of reaching large audiences with high awareness levels. Nevertheless, intensive advertising campaigns can become very expensive and can not be sustained for long periods.

As new products enter the growth market, the number of competitors tends to increase the market share. Marketers may need to maintain awareness and maintain market share. Marketers often rely on rough and ready ‘rules-of-thumb’ to estimate the amount of advertising required to achieve a given level of awareness. For instance, it was often necessary to increase the number of dollars per page. [55]

The brand advertiser will have the greatest impact on the market. The objective of a reminder campaign is simply to keep the audience aware of the brand’s existence. [56] A reminder of a broad reach, but with reduced frequency and a consequence is a less expensive advertising option. Reminder advertising is used by established brands, often when they are entering the maturity stage of the product lifecycle . In the decline stage, marketers often shift to a caretaker or maintenance program where advertising is cut back.

The rise of digital media and social networks is changing the way that consumers search for product information

While advertising remains important for the creation of media, it is important to know how to reduce the burden on the media. Instead, marketers are seeking to place their brand messages across a much wider variety of platforms. An increasing amount of consumer time and attention is devoted to digital communications devices. It is now possible to engage with consumers in a more cost-effective manner using social media networks that command massive audiences. For example, Facebook has become an extremely important communications channel. [57]Moreover, social media channels allow for two-way, interactive communications that are not paralleled by traditional main media. Interactive communication providing more opportunities for brands to connect with audience members and to move beyond simple awareness, branding preference, brand conviction and ultimately brand loyalty.

The rise of social media networks has increased the opportunities for opinion leaders to play a role in brand awareness. [58] In theory, anyone can be an opinion leader eg celebrities, or public figures, but the understanding of who is a potentially useful influencer. Indeed, the digital environment has created more opportunities for influential bloggers because they are seen as accessible, authentic and tend to have loyal followings. [59]Bloggers have become key influencers in important consumer goods and services including fashion, consumer electronics, food and beverage, cooking, restaurant dining and bars. For example, a recent survey by Collective Bias, which is more popular than celebrities. Findings shown that only 3% of participants said they would consider buying a celebrity-endorsed item, in comparison to 60% who said they had been influenced by a social media post when shopping. [60] For marketers, the digital landscape has made it easier to identify social influencers.

Popular examples of advertising and promotion

The following examples illustrate how brand awareness and brand advertising are used in practice.

Coca-Cola ‘ Share a Coke ‘ Campaign

Coca-Cola is a well-established brand with a long history of success. For any brand, such as Coke, that controls some 70 percent of market share, there are few opportunities to enlist new customers. Yet Coca-Cola is always on the lookout for novel communications that not only maintains its brand awareness, but that brings the brand to the attention of new audiences. The company launched a campaign which became known as ‘Share a Coke’, with the campaign objectives; “to strengthen the brand’s bond with Australia’s young adults – and inspire shared moments of happiness in the real and virtual worlds.” [61] The campaign, originally launched in Australia, became so successful that it was subsequently rolled out to other countries.

Coke bottles or cans. Popular names were written in a ‘look-alike Spencerian script’ which is part of the Coke brand’s distinctive brand identity. The campaign organizers seeded social media by targeting opinion leaders and influencers to get them to talk and encourage others to seek out “Share a Coke” for themselves. [62] [63]Within days celebrities and others with no connection to Coke were spreading the concept across social networks. The campaign extended the audience reach as more people were exposed to the messages. According to Coke’s creative team, “That [Australian] summer, Coke sold more than 250 million named bottles and cans in a nation of just under 23 million people”. This campaign helped Coke extend its awareness to a broader age profile. [64]

Ronald McDonald and anthropomorphic brand characters

Consumers experience few difficulties assigning a personality to a brand and marketing communications often encourages consumers to think about brands as possessing human characteristics. [65] When brands are infused with human-like characteristics, it can assist in communicating with branding values ​​and creating distinctive brand identities. [66] “In a global competitive marketplace, [some] companies rely on branded characters to create awareness,” “[translation]” [Keller, 2003].

The use of anthropomorphic characters has a long history. For example, the Michelin man , employed as a memorable character to sell Michelin stars, was introduced as early as 1894. These characters benefit the brand by creating memorable images in the consumer’s mind while conveying meanings that are consistent with the brand’s values.

McDonald’s created a similar “anthropomorphic brand character” Ronald Mcdonald as part of its brand identity. For younger consumers, Ronald McDonald injects a sense of fun and mystery into the McDonald’s brand. For parents, the character clearly signals that McDonald’s is a family friendly. Characters help to carry the brand’s identity and can be seen as non-human ‘spokes-character’, contributing to a strong brand differentiation. The likeability of the brands can be “positively influenced towards the brand and increase [consumers’] purchase intention” [67]

Mini

The well-known automotive manufacturer, Mini, investigated its brand perception in the UK by carrying out 55 in-depth interviews designed to elicit key feedback about the brand’s values. Consumers felt that the symbolic elements that represented the brand have been “fun, stylish and sporty image”. [68]

Customer engagement with the MINI brand on Facebook fan-page, promoted “positive effects on consumers” brand awareness, through WOM activities and the purchase intention was achieved “. [69] The brand, therefore, connected with users at an emotional level. [68]

See also

  • Advertising management – creating brand awareness is the primary function of advertising
  • Brand – creating and maintaining high levels of brand awareness is one of the primary functions of brand management
  • Consumer behavior – detailed overview of how consumers move from awareness to the current purchase
  • Marketing management
  • Product management life-cycle (marketing) – Explains how levels of brand awareness changes over a product’s life cycle
  • Purchase funnel – explains how brand awareness

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  47. Jump up^ Dutka, S.,Defining Advertising Goals for Measuring Advertising, NTC Business Books, 1995
  48. Jump up^ Rossiter, JR and Percy, L., “Advertising Communication Models”, in:Advances in Consumer Research,Volume 12, Elizabeth C. Hirschman and Moris B. Holbrook (eds), Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 1985, pp 510-524., Online:http://acrwebsite.org/volumes/6443/volumes/v12/NA-12orhttp://www.acrwebsite.org/search/view-conference-proceedings.aspx? id=6443
  49. Jump up^ Rossiter, J and Bellman, S.,Marketing Communications: Theory and Applications, Pearson Australia, 2005, p. 107-109
  50. Jump up^ Srinivasan, N., “Pre-purchase External Search Information,” in Valarie A. Zeithaml (ed),Review of Marketing 1990, Marketing Classics Press (AMA), 2011, pp 153-189
  51. Jump up^ Short, D. Elzinga, D., Mulder, S. and Vetvik, OJ, “The Consumer Decision Journey,”McKinsey Quarterly, June 2009, Online:http://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/ marketing-and-sales / our-insights / the-consumer-decision-journey
  52. Jump up^ Huang, R., & Sarigöllü, E. (2012). How brand awareness relates to market outcomes, brand equity, and the marketing mix. Journal Of Business Research, 6592-99 .
  53. Jump up^ Schmidt, S., & Eisend, M. (2015). Repetition: A Meta-Analysis on Effective Frequency in Advertising. Journal Of Advertising, 44 (4), 415-428 .
  54. Jump up^ Belch, G, Belch, MA, Kerr, G. and Powell, I.,Advertising and Promotion Management: An Integrated Marketing Communication Perspective, McGraw-Hill, Sydney, Australia, 2009, p.126
  55. Jump up^ See for instance, Jones, JP,The Ultimate Secrets of Advertising, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2002
  56. Jump up^ Business Dictionary (online),http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/reminder-advertising.html
  57. Jump up^ Dokyun, L., Hosanagar, K., & Nair, HS (2015). Content and Consumer Engagement on Social Media: Evidence from Facebook. Working Papers (Faculty) – Stanford Graduate School Of Business, 1-41 .
  58. Jump up^ Malaska, M., Saraniemi, S., & Tahtinen, J. (2010, September). Co-creation of Branding by Network Actors. Paper presented at 10th Annual EBRF Conference: Co-Creation as a Forward Way, (pp. 15-17), Nokia, Finland.
  59. Jump up^ Paul McIntyre, “Independent bloggers overtake celebrities as key social media influencers”,Australian Financial Review, 22 June 2015 Online:http://www.afr.com/business/independent-bloggers-overtake-celebrities-as-key -Social-media-influencers-20150528-ghbovu
  60. Jump up^ Singh, N., “Celebrity Vs Shopper”Harper’s Bazaar(Australia), 2 April 2016 Online:http://www.harpersbazaar.com.au/news/fashion-buzz/2016/4/bloggers-are- more-popular-than-celebrities /
  61. Jump up^ Coca-Cola company. “Share a Coke: How the Groundbreaking Campaign Got Its Start ‘Down Under'”, Retrieved fromhttp://www.coca-colacompany.com/stories/share-a-coke-how-the-groundbreaking-campaign-got- its-start-down-under /
  62. Jump up^ Coca Cola, Share a Coke, [Brand campaign website],https://www.shareacoke.com
  63. Jump up^ Ogilvy, Share a Coke Campaign Brief and Creative Concept, [Advertising agency],http://ogilvy.com.au/our-work/share-coke
  64. Jump up^ Coca-Cola company. “Share a Coke: How the Groundbreaking Campaign Got Its Start ‘Down Under'”, Retrieved fromhttp://www.coca-colacompany.com/stories/share-a-coke-how-the-groundbreaking-campaign-got- its-start-down-under /
  65. Jump up^ Puzakova, M., Kwak, H. and Rocereto, J., “Pushing the Envelope of Brand and Personality: Antecedents and Moderators of Anthropomorphized Brands”, inAdvances in Consumer Research,Vol. 36, Ann L. McGill and Sharon Shavitt, Duluth (eds), MN: Association for Consumer Research, 2007, pp. 413-420. [Url]:http://www.acrwebsite.org/volumes/14399/volumes/v36 / NA-36
  66. Jump up^ AC Smith, Graetz, and BR Westerbeek, HM, “Brand personality in a membership-based organization,”International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing,Vol. 11 No. 3, 2006, pp. 251-266.
  67. Jump up^ Hosany, S., Prayag, G., Martin, D., & Lee, W., “Theory and Strategies of Anthropomorphic Brand Characters from Peter Rabbit, Mickey Mouse, and Ronald McDonald, to Hello Kitty.”Journal of Marketing Management, Volume 29, No. 1/2, 2013, pp 48-68
  68. ^ Jump up to:b Simms, CD, & Trott, P. (2006). “The perceptions of the BMW Mini brand: the importance of historical associations and the development of a model,” Journal of Product & Brand Management , 228-238.
  69. Jump up^ Hutter, K., Hautz, J., Dennhardt, S., & Fuller, J. (2013), “The impact of user interactions in social media on brand awareness and purchase intention: the case of MINI on Facebook, “Journal of Product & Brand Management, 342-351.